Wuyishan City has a long history.
Before the Qin (221-206 B.C.) and Han (206 B. C.-A. D.
25) dynasties, the city was under the jurisdiction of
the State of Yue, in Southeast China. According to ancient
records and archeological evidence, the site of the city
was inhabited more than 4,000 years ago. "Boat-shaped
Coffins" suspended from cliffs, said to be some 3,800
years old, can still be seen. After Emperor Qin Shihuang
conquered Yue, he set up Minzhong Prefecture, and a city
on the site of present-day. Wuyishan was founded as a
border city. In the fifth year of the Chunhua reign period
of the Northern Song Dynasty (994), the area was named
Chong'an County, and in the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) Chong'an
County came under the jurisdiction of Jianyang Lu. The
area became well-known when the leading philosopher Zhu
Xi gave lectures in Ching'an, where he resided for some
time. In 1989, Chong'an County was re-named Wuyishan City.
Located at the foot of the southeastern
slope of Huanggang Mountain, the main peak of the Wuyi
Mountains, Wuyishan City sits on hilly land consisting
of red gravel rocks, with an elevation of about 400m.
The highest peak exceeds 700m. With an area of 70sq km,
Wuyishan City lies between latitudes 27o35ˊ-27o43ˊN, and
longitudes 117o55ˊ-118o01ˊE. The city boasts unique natural
scenery of bluish-green waters and reddish hills. The
physiognomy of Wuyishan is typical Danxia Landscape. The
peaks of the Wuyi Mountains are vivid, elegant and grotesquely
shaped. Of them, Danxie Hill is of Particular attraction.
Located close to the tropic of Cancer,
Wuyishan City has a sub-tropical, humid monsoon climate.
The high mountains to the northwest of the city keep off
cold air from the north in winter, and block warm and
humid air currents from the ocean in spring and summer.
Hence, the city has a warm, fresh and cool climate, with
an average annual temperature of 17.9℃. July is the hottest
month of the year, when the average temperature is about
27℃. January is the coldest month, when the average temperature
is about 8℃. The city is suitable for tourism all the
year round. Wuyishan City has much rainfall, with a mean
annual precipitation of around 1,900mm, concentrated in
spring and summer. It has 150-160 rainy days and about
110 foggy days a year.
In early spring, Wuyishan City is
Very pretty, with green mountains, clear waters and colorful
flowers, in addition to the delicate scent of birch trees.
In summer, the city is a pleasant resort, with densely
growing trees, murmuring streams, and cool winds. In the
clear and crisp autumn, the city boasts red maple leaves
and camellias in full bloom, making people feel relaxed
and happy. In winter, beautiful plum blossoms and green
pine trees form a lovely picture. The scenery of the mountains
is changeable at different times of the day, and is particularly
appealing on windy, rainy or snowy days.
Natural Ecological Environment
Wuyishan City has an extremely fortunate
natural ecological environment, its forest coverage rate
being 53 percent. In the Wuyishan National Tourist Attraction
Area, the forest coverage rate reaches 65.3 percent, and
98 percent of the Wuyishan National Nature Reserve is
covered by forests. The quality of its air and water greatly
exceeds the state's standards. Tourism plays a leading
role in Wuyishan's economy. The setting up of industrial
projects which may harm the natural environment is forbidden
here. When the Chairman of the Executive Board of the
World Tourism Organization visited Wuyishan, she said,
"Unpolluted Wuyishan is a good model for the world environmental
protection." Dr. Moroy of UNESCO World Heritage Committee
once claimed, "Wuyishan is the everlasting symbol of Chinese
natural resources which can be applied continuously."
Wuyishan City mainly relies on its
export-oriented economy, and tourism is its pillar industry.
Every year, the revenue contributed by tourism makes up
more than one third of the city's total. By relying on
its rich bamboo, timber, rock tea and granite resources,
it has formed a series of sturdy industries mainly serving
tourism, including the production of tourist arts and
crafts, processing of bamboo and forest products, making
fine rock tea and quanying granite. Wuyishan City is also
a commodity grain base and key forest area, as well as
a famous tea producer in China. Its agriculture has constantly
been optimized along with the development of tourism,
and its grain, timber, tea, bamboo products, flowers and
vegetable sectors are thriving.
Wuyi Mountains is a famous cultural
mountain with a long history. Since the Qin and Han dynasties,
it has been held in great esteem, and in the Tang Dynasty
(618-907), it was named a famous mountain by the Court.
It was reputed to be the location of the "No.16 Cavern"
by the Taoists, and of the "Cavern of Idealist Philosophy
in the South" in the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Zhu Xi,
a scholar who created Neo-Confucianism during the Southern
Song Dynasty (1127-1279), installed himself in the "Wuyi
Best Cottage" here, where he gathered his disciples, gave
lectures and wrote books, thus turning it into a cultural
and academic center in Southeast China. Many men of letters,
such as Li Shangyin, Lu You, Xin Qiji, Liu Yong, Xu Xiake
and Qi Jiguang toured Wuyi Mountains, leaving more than
2,000 immortal articles and poems in the area. Wuyi Mountains
has numerous unique historical sites, such as the boat-shaped
coffins of the Shang (ca. 16th-11th century B.C.) and
Western Zhou (11th century-771B.C.) dynasties, the ruins
of an ancient city of the Han Dynasty, the ruins of the
Ziyang Academy, the ruins of the 10,000 Year Palace, Cheng
Village the Xiamei Building Complex of the Qing Dynasty,
the Yongle Buddhist Temple, the Taoyuandong Taoist Temple,
the Zhizhi Nunnery, Yuqing Bridge and ancient cliff carvings.
There is a wealth of folk takes about the mountain. Scholar
Cai Shangsi wrote a poem: "Eastern Zhou gave birth to
Confucius, and Southern Song, to Zhu Xi. China's ancient
culture is represented by Tai Mountains and Wuyi Mountains."
A Survey of Tourist Industry
Wuyishan City is the only tourism
city named after a famous mountain in Fujian Province.
It is rich in tourism resources, with unique scenic spots
and many historical sites. It has a state key scenic area,
key nature reserve, key tourist resort, first-class airport,
and the ruins of the ancient city of the Han Dynasty at
Chengcun, which is included in the fourth category of
historical monuments and cultural relics under state protection.
Thanks to its unique geographical location, the Chinese
Government has given it approval to set up examining port
organizations such as customs and border, commodity, animals
and plants, and hygiene supervision bodies. With the approval
of the General Administration of Customs, the Wuyishan
Bonded Warehouse Zone has been set up here.
Depending on its abundant natural
resources and historical sites, and the preferential policies
offered by the State and Fujian Province, Wuyishan City
has success fully implemented the strategy of "developing
through tourism, supported by environment protection,
enriched by opening up and strengthened by science and
education" since the Eighth Five-year Plan period (1990-1995),
thus getting rid of the traditional agricultural county
economy barrier and setting up a brand-new pattern for
its tourist economy with Wuyishan characteristics. Since
then, the city's economy has developed rapidly, and its
tourism sector has expanded constantly. Especially since
it started to turn itself into "Top Tourist Cities of
China", Wuyishan has paid great attention to the improvement
of tourism infrastructure facilities, the construction
of modernized functions of a tourist city of tourism infrastructure
facilities, the construction of modernized functions of
a tourist city and the improvement of the quality of tourist
services, thus further promoting the sustained, stable
and healthy development of the tourist economy. At present,
Wuyishan City has 32 travel agencies, including 4 international
travel agencies, and 246 tourist hotels. Now the city
has the capability of receiving five million tourists
a year, including 150,000 foreigners. In 2005, the city's
total GNP came to five billion yuan. The revenue from
tourism made up one third of the city's total, and 43.6
percent of the city's GDP.
The Symbol of the City-----the
Wuyi Soul Group Sculpture
The Wuyi Soul Group Sculpture is located
at the juncture of the city proper of Wuyishan and the
tourist attraction. 14-meter high and made with local
produced red granite, the sculpture shows the legendary
Peng Zu and his two sons, Peng Wu and Peng Yi, opening
up waste land, regulating rivers and water courses, uprooting
brambles and thorns, dispelling evils and slaying beasts
on Wuyi Mountains. The figures represent a pristine force
of soul and spirit. The theme of the sculpture combines
with art and the environment in a harmonious whole. It
was designed by Prof. Sheng Yang, a leading Chinese sculptor,
and Secretary of the Party Committee of the Central Academy
of Fine Arts. Zhu Qizhan, 102 years old, a top calligrapher,
wrote the inscription for the sculpture.
Basin Facilities and Modernized
When creating an excellent tourism
city of China, Wuyishan, in light of the principle of
"putting stress on actual effects", has greatly strengthened
the construction of tourism facilities and further perfected
the city's modernized tourism facilities.
Wuyishan's tourism industry has established
a fairly good tourism consulting service system,and set
up tourism consulting and complaint telephones opened
to the public,The touching multimedia computer consulting
system can be found at all hotels at the therr-star level
or above,the Airport,Railway Station and piers.Tourism
consulting service centers are set up in the places where
tourists gather,with special personnel providing services.Wuyishan
City has prepared various kinds of tourst materials for
tourists,such as plane and train timetables,the map of
railways,the tables of domestic and international air
routes,prices for various tourist routes,and brief introductions
to the hotels,travel agencies and tourist attractions.
Legends and Stories
There is a beautiful legend about Yunü
Peak. Yunü, a fairy maiden, fell in love with Dawang,
an earthly king. She came to Mt. Wuyi and enjoyed its
fantastic natural beauty very much together with the king.
So she decided to stay there. However, a demon named Tieban
(Iron Plate) informed the Jade Emperor. The Jade Emperor
flew into a rage and turned the demon into a peak, known
as Tieban Peak, to separate Dawang Peak from Yunü Peak.
Therefore, the two lovers couldn't see each other though
they were only a short distance away.
The name of the mountain comes from a story about a
legendary person called Qian Keng who lived during the
shang Dynasty (c.16th century-11th century B.C.), believed
to be the eighth generation descendant of Huangdi, the
Yellow Emperor. Because of Qian Keng's outstanding achievements,
King Yao gave him the title of lord of Pengcheng (present-day
Xuzhou in Jiangsu) and thus he became known by the surname
Peng. His descendants referred to him as Peng Zu (Ancestor
Peng). To escape from wars occurring at that time, Peng
Zu took his two sons, Peng Wu and Peng Yi, to a scenic
mountain area in northern Fujian. They settled down there,
worked the land and lived as farmers. Later, in memory
of these first settlers to the region, people name the
mountain range after the two sons, Wu and Yi, and thereafter
also used the name Wuyi to refer to Peng Zu. Later Emperor
Wudi of the Han Dynasty (r.140-87 B.C.) sent out envoys
who travelled long distances in order to confer on Wuyi
the honorific title of Master.